Amava kumazwe eBRICS kubunzululwazi nobuchwephesha angaphuhlisa izakhono noqoqosho eAfrika!

Unathi September.

Amehlo kwihlabathi jikelele azakube ethe ntsho kwingqungquthela yamazwe eBRICS kwiveki ezayo. La mazwe aquka iBrazil, iRussia, India, China noMzantsi Afrika. Indibano yesithathu yeBRICS le iza kusingathwa nguMzantsi Afrika kwaye ifika xa kanye ihlabathi lijongene nezimvo ezikhabanayo malunga nefuthe lamazwe aseNtshona kuqoqosho lamazwe asaphuhlayo, ingakumbi ukusetyenziswa kweDola yaseMelika kurhwebo phakathi kwamazwe asenoqoqosho oluhlumayo.

Ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka, uMzantsi Afrika uthabathe indima yokuba ngusihlalo wengqungquthela ka2023, phantsi komxholo othi: “Intsebenziswano yokuhluma koqoqosho ngokukhawulezileyo, uphuhliso oluzinzileyo, kwakunye nokubandakanywa kwamazwe ngamazwe”.

Eminye yemiba eza kube ihamba phambili kwingqungquthela kulo nyaka iza kube ikukuguqulwa kwemfundo nophuhliso lwezakhono kwakunye nokuvulwa kwamathuba orhwebo kwizwekazi laseAfrika. Abahlalutyi bezoqoqosho babanga ngelithi akuseyomfihlo okokuba sigxeleshwe yimeko apho amazwe ngamazwe afuna ukukruthana ngezimbiwa ezifumaneka kwizwekazi iAfrika ukuze aphuhlise ubunzululwazi nobuchwephesha obunefuthe kwezoqoqosho nezentlalo.

Ingaba yintoni na le engumtsalane eAfrika ebonwa nebangwa ngamazwe ngamazwe aseMpuma naseNtshona xa ecwangcisela uphuhliso lwezoqoqosho? Singafunda ntoni na thina xa sicwangcisela intsebenziswano nalamazwe ukuze singazaleli phantsi?

Ukunqongophala nophazamiseko kwimveliso yezimbiwa ezifana necobalt, copper, tantalum, tungsten, platinum, negolide ngelixa likagilikanqo kusibonise ukuba izwekazi leAfrika, noMzantsi Afrika uphela, ubaluleke kangakanani na kuqoqosho lwehlabathi, ingakumbi kuhlumo olunxulumene nemveliso yezixhobo zobunzululwazi nobuchwephesha.

Kwiindibano ezifana nale ngqungquthela esijongene nayo, kufuneka sihlabe sikhangele, singaziboni siqubha kwisiziba esineengwenya, hleze sizibone singamaxhoba namakhoboka amanye amazwe.

Singafunda lukhulu kumaqabane ethu amazwe eBRICS athabathe amathuba okuzikhupha endlaleni ngokusebenzisa izakhono nezimbiwa ukuphuhlisa ubuchwephesha obunefuthe kuqoqosho lwehlabathi.

Ukuba bendicebisa oonozakuzaku abazakube besimmele, bendingacebisa ukuba uMzantsi Afrika (nezwekazi iAfrika) ugxile kwezi ngongoma zintathu nezisisiseko sophuhliso lobuchwephesha beArtificial Intelligence:

1. Imveliso yeeSemiconductor – iChina, iSouth Korea neJapan zidibene zivelisa ngaphaya komyinge oyi80% we-indium kwihlabathi jikelele. Isimbiwa i-indium nesisesinye sezimbiwa esibalulekiyo ekuveliseni iiMicrochip ziwancedile lamazwe kuhlumo loqoqosho olunxulumene nobuchwephesha.

Ixabiso le-indium liqikelelwa kwiR9000 ikhilogram kwaye la mazwe mathathu avelisa ngaphaya kwe800 000 yeekhilogram ngonyaka wesi simbiwa. Eyona nto singayifunda kula mazwe, ingakumbi iChina, kukusetyenziswa kovimba wendalo, hayi nje ukomba kwezimbiwa zithunyelwe kumazwe angaphandle.

Ilizwe loMzantsi Afrika, iMorroco kwakunye neZimbabwe zivelisa ngaphaya kwezigidi ezibini zeekhilogram zetungsten ngonyaka. Amazwe afana neDemocratic Republic of Congo, iZambia, iBotswana noMzantsi Afrika avelisa ngaphaya kwe2.5 yebhiliyoni zekhilogram zobhedu (copper) ngonyaka.

Izimbiwa itungsten nobhedu zixabisa ngaphaya kweR6500 ikhilogram. Ixabiso lemveliso leeSemiconductor lingaphaya kwe10 bhiliyoni zeerandi ngonyaka ehlabathini jikelele. Ukuba siqhubeka nokungaphuhlisi kwezakhono zobuchwephesha nokuthumela izimbiwa ezingundoqo kumanye amazwe ngaphandle kokuvelisa izixhobo ezifana neeSemiconductor siza kube sizibetha ngenyhek’etyeni, ingakumbi xa izimbiwa ezifana nobhedu, itungesten, negolide zifumaneka apha ekhaya.

Ukuba ngenene lengqungquthela yamazwe eBRICS ijongene nophuhliso oluzinzileyo nentsebenziswano exhamla amazwe anoqoqosho olusakhasayo ngokufanelekileyo, uMzantsi Afrika kufuneka uthabathe isigqibo sokubeka phambili abemmi kuqala.

2. Ukuphuhliswa kwezakhono ezinxulumene nokwakhiwa kobuxhakaxhaka beSoftware – Singafunda lukhulu kwilizwe elifana ne-India ukuba ngenene sifuna ukulwa nezinga lentswela ngesho yolutsha nolunyuka nyaka-nonyaka eMzantsi Afrika.

I-India lelona lizwe elihamba phambili kwihlabathi ekuthengiseni kwesakhono solwakhiwo lweSoftware kumazwe angaphandle. Eli lizwe lithatha isabelo somyinge oyi55% semalike yehlabathi jikelele kwimveliso yobuxhakaxhaka beSoftware. Ixabiso lehlabathi lemalike yokuveliswa kweSoftware yase-India, ivelisela amanye amazwe, iqikelelwa ukuba liya kufikelela kwiR170 yeebhiliyoni kulo nyaka.

UMzantsi Afrika unolutsha olufikelela kwizigidi ezihlanu olungaphandle kwemisebenzi. Imiceli mngeni eyayijongene nelizwe lase-India ngaphambili iyafana neminye yemiceli mngeni esijongene nawo namhlanje. UMzantsi Afrika uneempawu eziliqela ezingumtsalane ezihamba phambili xa inkampani zamazwe ngamazwe zijonge nokunika umsebenzi wophuhliso lweSoftware ngaphandle.

Sinamaziko emfundo ephakamileyo ahamba phambili ehlabathini jikelele kubuchwephesha nobunzululwazi; sinetalente engummangaliso ingakumbi kulutsha olungaphantsi kweminyaka eyi35; sinesimo sezulu esihle nesilangazelekayo; kwaye sineendleko zokuphila ezisafikelelekayo xa sithelekiswa namanye amazwe esingakhuphisana nawo kule malike.

Ugxininiso kuphuhliso lwezakhono ezinxulumene nemisebenzi ezakuveliswa bubuchwephesha beArtificial Intelligence kufuneka luhambe phambili kwizivumelwano zentsebenziswano phakathi kwamazwe afana noMzantsi Afrika ne-India.

3. Ukwakhiwa kwamaziko eDatha – Ixabiso lemalike elinxulumene nophuhliso lwamaziko edata luqikelelwa ukuba luza kufikelela kwiR630 yeebhiliyoni phakathi kweChina ne-India ngonyaka ka2025. Nangona iRussia isasilela ngasemva kwiChina neMelika kule malike, iphakathi kwamazwe amathathu ahamba phambili eYurophu ekwakhiweni kwamaziko edata.

UMzantsi Afrika ungazuza lukhulu kwaye uzifumane phakathi kwamanye amazwe ahamba phambili kweli candelo ngenxa yohlumo olukhawulezileyo kubuchwephesha bekhompyutha yelifu (cloud computing); isidingo somthamo ongaphezulu wogcino lwedatha enkulu; nesidingo ezidibene nohlumo lomatheng’athengisa emnatheni.

Njengaye nawuphi na ummi weli lomdibaniso, ndiyathemba ukuba iingxoxo nezivumelwano zentsebenziswano enxulukumene nokuhluma koqoqosho ngokukhawulezileyo, nophuhliso oluzinzileyo phakathi kulamazwe eBRICS kuza kuba nemiphumela ejongene nenzuzo kubemmi bonke jikelele, hayi izityebi nosopolitiki kuphela. Impumelelo yezi ngqungquthela nezivumelwano siza kuyibona ngokhuthi sixhamle sonke sisisizwe, nezwekazi iAfrika.

Umbhali nguMnu. Unathi September – Umcebisi kwiSolutions 4 Youth Employment nephantsi kweqela lemisebenzi yokhuseleko lwezentlalo kunye nemisebenzi yehlabathi kwiBhanki Yehlabathi ukwangumfundi wePhD kwisikolo sobuchwephesha kwiYunivesithi yaseKapa.